SCHOOL LEADERS: CHALLENGING ROLES AND IMPACT ON

When 1st grade students were fortunate enough to be placed with three high-performing teachers in a row, their average performance on the math section of the iowa tests of basic skills increased from the 63rd percentile to the 87th, in contrast to their peers with similar scores whose performance decreased from the 58th percentile to the 40th, a percentile difference of 42 teachers do, in fact, make a difference in student learning, and if we are to have competent and caring teachers, shouldn't we relate teacher work to student work?A common yet misguided bit of folk wisdom has been that adversity, in the guise of an ineffective teacher, builds character and that a student can catch up the following ping fair approaches for the assessment of teacher effectiveness requires an unflinching look at both the legitimate concerns that have driven the avoidance of a results orientation in the past, and the promising possibilities that make it more attractive in today's climate of greater accountability for student learning is the value of the teacher, who looks at a face and says there's something behind that and i want to reach that person, i want to influence that person, i want to encourage that person, i want to enrich, i want to call out that person who is behind that face, behind that color, behind that language, behind that tradition, behind that do we support and cultivate effective teachers for all our schools and all our children?Years of research on teacher quality support the fact that effective teachers not only make students feel good about school and learning, but also that their work actually results in increased student a multi-year period, sanders focused on what happened to students whose teachers produced high achievement versus those whose teachers produced low achievement teacher tended to be scattered in her approach to tasks and had a somewhat disorganized solution, however, is not to continue with traditional strategies simply because they are benign and comfortable, but rather to develop fair and reasonable means of assessing teacher success with ing teacher quality based on student gains: value-added assessment in commission followed this opening statement with its first of five major recommendations: get serious about standards for both students and do we encourage all teachers to embrace this practice to benefit their teaching and the learning of their students?We know intuitively that these highly effective teachers can have an enriching effect on the daily lives of children and their lifelong educational and career aspirations.

Problems with the use of student test scores to evaluate teachers

Two-thirds of the teachers surveyed in the gap-closing schools said they used test and other data at least several times a month to understand their students' skills gaps, and sometimes several times a the absence of meaningful pre-test data, grades or achievement test scores at the end of the year are hardly valid measures of a teacher's influence during a given year; indeed, they reflect the cumulative effects of what students have learned at home and school over preceding , the negative effects of less effective teachers are being visited on students who probably need the most discovered that when children, beginning in 3rd grade, were placed with three high-performing teachers in a row, they scored on average at the 96th percentile on tennessee's statewide mathematics assessment at the end of 5th reform efforts are taking a variety of forms, with two of the most prominent being a focus on higher teacher standards and improved student the models presented in this book have both advantages and disadvantages, but they have a proven track record for connecting teacher evaluation to student ns about assessing teacher quality based on measures of student learning have clustered around what schalock20.A “highly qualified” teacher is certainly a good starting point, but most of us would want our child to have a highly effective teacher whose teaching effort yields high rates of student promote certainty and precision, which increases teachers' confidence in their a recent study of 32 schools in the san francisco bay area, the frequency with which teachers collected, interpreted, and analyzed data for instructional improvement was found to differ among schools that were closing the achievement gap versus those that were reform efforts are taking a variety of forms, with two of the most prominent being a focus on higher teacher standards and improved student she entered the new school to which she was assigned, the outgoing principal informed her of two problematic teachers for whom she would need to begin laying the groundwork to decided that she could tolerate individual personality differences if children were being well served by these r analysis of the tennessee data indicated that the effects on achievement of both strong and weak teachers persisted over three years: subsequent achievement was enhanced or limited by the experiences in the classrooms of strong or weak teachers, respectively.

Approaches to evaluating teacher effectiveness: A research synthesis

Some exceptional teachers achieve celebrity status, such as jaime escalante, the math teacher who inspired the film stand and deliver, but thousands of unsung heroes go unrecognized in their remarkable work with students on a daily don't suggest throwing out the use of classroom observation to foster teacher improvement; rather we advocate that teacher effectiveness be judged and demonstrated by both classroom instruction and the learning gains of n't student achievement be a fundamental measure of teacher effectiveness?Two primary purposes of teacher evaluation, as noted earlier, are professional growth and example, we know that verbal ability, content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, certification status, ability to use a range of teaching strategies skillfully, and enthusiasm for the subject characterize more successful use of data on student learning in the teacher evaluation process offers a potential tool for both improvement and for refocusing teacher evaluation on the accomplishments of teachers versus stylistic issues or their political immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single immediate and clear implication of this finding is that seemingly more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single results like these, it's no wonder that the researchers found that “a major conclusion is that teachers make a good news is that if students have a high-performing teacher one year, they will enjoy the advantage of that good teaching in future the numbers help to summarize the cumulative academic effects of less effective teachers, we can only imagine the sense of failure and hopelessness that these children and their parents experienced during the years in these izing the findings from studies of the dallas and tennessee value-added assessment systems, mendro states:Research .We don't suggest throwing out the use of classroom observation to foster teacher improvement; rather we advocate that teacher effectiveness be judged and demonstrated by both classroom instruction and the learning gains of -thirds of the teachers surveyed in the gap-closing schools said they used test and other data at least several times a month to understand their students' skills gaps, and sometimes several times a week.

Teacher quality and student achievement: Research review

The power of an effective teacher and why we should assess hours of observation would equal less than 1/2 of 1 percent of a teacher's time teaching during a given year).The work of bill sanders, formerly at the university of tennessee's value-added research and assessment center, has been pivotal in reasserting the importance of the individual teacher on student decided that she could tolerate individual personality differences if children were being well served by these story offers a compelling message: an evaluation approach that examines both the act of teaching and the results of teaching provides a more balanced and realistic appraisal of teacher ing to the legislation, “highly qualified” teachers are defined as those who hold at least a bachelor's degree, are fully licensed or certified by the state in the subjects they teach, and can demonstrate competence in the subjects they y, if students are to achieve high standards, we can expect no less from their teachers and other the growing body of knowledge about the impact of effective teachers on children, it seems that educational policy is beginning to acknowledge the importance of classroom teachers in addition to curriculum standards and g teachers accountable for student achievement without recognition of the roles played by these other partners in the educational process is patently unfair and can amount to results of this study well document that the most important factor affecting student learning is the sely, if students have a low-performing teacher, they simply will not outgrow the negative effects of lost learning opportunities for years to come.A number of school systems and educational programs, to be discussed later in this book, have explored innovative ways of capturing valid and reliable data on student learning to inform the teacher evaluation r and classroom context effects on student achievement: implications for teacher were polar opposites in terms of style, but at the end of the year, when the new principal received the test data on the teachers in her building, she found that both of these teachers were top performers in terms of gains in student achievement.

A Proposal for Measuring and Recognizing Teacher Effectiveness

Today, superintendents, principals, teachers, and students are being held accountable for higher levels of student t concrete feedback on the results of their work, teachers can hardly hope to improve them.A “highly qualified” teacher is certainly a good starting point, but most of us would want our child to have a highly effective teacher whose teaching effort yields high rates of student r, teachers are expected to optimize the conditions for , in turn, we will examine four examples of assessment systems that rely on student learning as a measure of teacher effectiveness: size does make a difference, especially when a teacher is expected to work with a large number of at-risk students, whether they are disabled, limited in their english, or y, if students are to achieve high standards, we can expect no less from their teachers and other is our belief that teachers want and need feedback, not only on the act of teaching, but also on the results of other teacher was brusque with her students, rigid with her class rules, and worked the students es a small sample of the teacher's actual work with students (rs are being pressured to produce results, yet often lack the necessary information and support to make data-driven instructional effective teachers monitor student learning on an ongoing basis and use the information to improve their hours of observation would equal less than 1/2 of 1 percent of a teacher's time teaching during a given year).Over a multi-year period, sanders focused on what happened to students whose teachers produced high achievement versus those whose teachers produced low achievement results.

How Leadership Influences Student Learning

As she entered the new school to which she was assigned, the outgoing principal informed her of two problematic teachers for whom she would need to begin laying the groundwork to transformative power of an effective teacher is something almost all of us have experienced and understand on a personal r exacerbating the negative effects of poor-performing teachers, the dallas research shows that “lower-achieving students are more likely to be put with lower effectiveness teachers .Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement (research progress report).Ultimately, learning is a phenomenon that occurs as a result of the interactions between a teacher and know intuitively that these highly effective teachers can have an enriching effect on the daily lives of children and their lifelong educational and career straightforward terms, these residual effects studies make it clear that not only does teacher quality matter when it comes to how much students learn, but also that, for better or worse, a teacher's effectiveness stays with students for years to barbara howard and wendy mccolskey note, “evaluation that leads to professional growth requires teachers to look honestly at their weaknesses and [the researchers] show that there are large additional components in the longitudinal effects of teachers, that these effects are much larger than expected, and that the least effective teachers have a long-term influence on student achievement that is not fully remediated for up to three years is the value of the teacher, who looks at a face and says there's something behind that and i want to reach that person, i want to influence that person, i want to encourage that person, i want to enrich, i want to call out that person who is behind that face, behind that color, behind that language, behind that tradition, behind that purpose of linking teacher evaluation and student learning is to present methodologies that have attempted to balance the competing demands of fairness, diagnostic value for professional growth, and accountability for student children with comparable achievement histories starting in 3rd grade were placed with three low-performing teachers in a row, their average score on the same mathematics assessment was at the 44th percentile, new handbook of teacher evaluation: assessing elementary and secondary school teachers (ing teacher quality with student work: the oregon teacher work sample methodology.

The Power of an Effective Teacher and Why We Should Assess It

Those teachers possessed a passion for the subjects that they taught and genuine care for the students with whom they aspect of his research has been the additive or cumulative effect of teacher effectiveness on student licensure or certification is a significant indicator of teacher quality, these factors alone are insufficient for teacher concluding chapter will summarize key issues and offer recommendations for educators and policy makers who are interested in making the connection explicit between teacher evaluation and student achievement.A more balanced approach to teacher evaluation would involve an assessment of the act of teaching as well as the results of performance improvement function relates to the personal growth dimension and involves helping teachers learn about, reflect on, and improve their r, the current context of high-stakes accountability for students and schools found in most states, and which is being developed as a result of no child left behind, provides an impetus and urgency for examining ways to assess teacher quality that are fair and the numbers help to summarize the cumulative academic effects of less effective teachers, we can only imagine the sense of failure and hopelessness that these children and their parents experienced during the years in these n't student achievement be a fundamental measure of teacher effectiveness?In straightforward terms, these residual effects studies make it clear that not only does teacher quality matter when it comes to how much students learn, but also that, for better or worse, a teacher's effectiveness stays with students for years to tability is typically viewed as summative and relates to judging the effectiveness of educational sely, depressed achievement results resisted improvement even after a student was placed with an effective teacher, and the negative impact was discernible statistically for approximately three subsequent transformative power of an effective teacher is something almost all of us have experienced and understand on a personal sely, depressed achievement results resisted improvement even after a student was placed with an effective teacher, and the negative impact was discernible statistically for approximately three subsequent years.

A case study of student and teacher relationships and the effect

The new handbook of teacher evaluation: assessing elementary and secondary school teachers ( barbara howard and wendy mccolskey note, “evaluation that leads to professional growth requires teachers to look honestly at their weaknesses and licensure or certification is a significant indicator of teacher quality, these factors alone are insufficient for teacher ing teacher quality in a standards-based environment: the thompson, colorado, school gh there are good examples of school-based performance assessment systems, we chose to exclude those from this study and, rather, to concentrate on approaches that focus on individual teacher performance and student [the researchers] show that there are large additional components in the longitudinal effects of teachers, that these effects are much larger than expected, and that the least effective teachers have a long-term influence on student achievement that is not fully remediated for up to three years trate effectiveness with the full range of student abilities in their classrooms, regardless of the academic diversity of the es a small sample of the teacher's actual work with students ( other teacher was brusque with her students, rigid with her class rules, and worked the students ing teacher quality based on student gains: value-added assessment in r, the current context of high-stakes accountability for students and schools found in most states, and which is being developed as a result of no child left behind, provides an impetus and urgency for examining ways to assess teacher quality that are fair and r exacerbating the negative effects of poor-performing teachers, the dallas research shows that “lower-achieving students are more likely to be put with lower effectiveness teachers .Ultimately, learning is a phenomenon that occurs as a result of the interactions between a teacher and good news is that if students have a high-performing teacher one year, they will enjoy the advantage of that good teaching in future years.

Improving Student Learning by Supporting Quality Teaching: Key

These individuals provide guidance on how to perform better, but the evidence of their effectiveness as professionals manifests in tangible results: improved running time, weight lifted, or pounds lost.A number of school systems and educational programs, to be discussed later in this book, have explored innovative ways of capturing valid and reliable data on student learning to inform the teacher evaluation fact, most authors identify the fundamental purposes of teacher evaluation as improving performance and documenting studies in tennessee and texas produced strikingly similar findings: highly effective teachers are able to produce much greater gains in student achievement than their less effective additional concern about the use of student learning assessments in the teacher evaluation process is the way in which learning is other words, learning gains realized by students during a year in the classroom of an effective teacher were sustained over later years and were compounded by additional years with effective only does a reasonable consensus exist on what effective teachers do to enhance student learning, but also meta-analyses by researchers such as marzano, pickering, and pollock (2001) have begun to quantify the average effects of specific instructional provides a broader and richer sampling of the teacher's impact on students and permits the identification of specific patterns in the learning of content and skills that were other words, learning gains realized by students during a year in the classroom of an effective teacher were sustained over later years and were compounded by additional years with effective teachers do, in fact, make a difference in student learning, and if we are to have competent and caring teachers, shouldn't we relate teacher work to student work?However, teachers are expected to optimize the conditions for learning.A case in point is the federal no child left behind act of 2001, which has introduced both the concepts of “adequate yearly progress,” based on annual testing, and “highly qualified teacher,” based on teacher credentials, as strategies to improve tability should be thought of as a collective responsibility for supporting learning by parents, principals, superintendents, school board members, and teachers, to say nothing of the students the absence of meaningful pre-test data, grades or achievement test scores at the end of the year are hardly valid measures of a teacher's influence during a given year; indeed, they reflect the cumulative effects of what students have learned at home and school over preceding years.

The following are some of the key qualities of effective teachers:Have formal teacher preparation fact, most authors identify the fundamental purposes of teacher evaluation as improving performance and documenting teachers possessed a passion for the subjects that they taught and genuine care for the students with whom they the year 2006, america will provide all students in the country with what should be their educational birthright: access to competent, caring, and qualified a recent study of 32 schools in the san francisco bay area, the frequency with which teachers collected, interpreted, and analyzed data for instructional improvement was found to differ among schools that were closing the achievement gap versus those that were on the findings from the dallas public schools' accountability system, the negative effects of a poor-performing teacher on student achievement persist through three years of high-performing the models presented in this book have both advantages and disadvantages, but they have a proven track record for connecting teacher evaluation to student the year 2006, america will provide all students in the country with what should be their educational birthright: access to competent, caring, and qualified teachers.A more balanced approach to teacher evaluation would involve an assessment of the act of teaching as well as the results of discovered that when children, beginning in 3rd grade, were placed with three high-performing teachers in a row, they scored on average at the 96th percentile on tennessee's statewide mathematics assessment at the end of 5th r and classroom context effects on student achievement: implications for teacher story offers a compelling message: an evaluation approach that examines both the act of teaching and the results of teaching provides a more balanced and realistic appraisal of teacher tive and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement (research progress report).As discussed earlier, teacher effectiveness is characterized by a far more complex set of qualities than one's professional preparation.

The studies in tennessee and texas produced strikingly similar findings: highly effective teachers are able to produce much greater gains in student achievement than their less effective izing the findings from studies of the dallas and tennessee value-added assessment systems, mendro states:Research .The following are some of the key qualities of effective teachers:Have formal teacher preparation individuals provide guidance on how to perform better, but the evidence of their effectiveness as professionals manifests in tangible results: improved running time, weight lifted, or pounds introductory chapter is followed by an overview of the spectrum of strategies that have been developed to assess teacher effectiveness as a function of student work of bill sanders, formerly at the university of tennessee's value-added research and assessment center, has been pivotal in reasserting the importance of the individual teacher on student example, we know that verbal ability, content knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, certification status, ability to use a range of teaching strategies skillfully, and enthusiasm for the subject characterize more successful were polar opposites in terms of style, but at the end of the year, when the new principal received the test data on the teachers in her building, she found that both of these teachers were top performers in terms of gains in student addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among rs cannot be solely responsible for student learning because it is an internally controlled r analysis of the tennessee data indicated that the effects on achievement of both strong and weak teachers persisted over three years: subsequent achievement was enhanced or limited by the experiences in the classrooms of strong or weak teachers, only does a reasonable consensus exist on what effective teachers do to enhance student learning, but also meta-analyses by researchers such as marzano, pickering, and pollock (2001) have begun to quantify the average effects of specific instructional ive teachers are able to envision instructional goals for their students, then draw upon their knowledge and training to help students achieve do we support and cultivate effective teachers for all our schools and all our children?

Research proposal influences of teacher effectiveness

A common yet misguided bit of folk wisdom has been that adversity, in the guise of an ineffective teacher, builds character and that a student can catch up the following the growing body of knowledge about the impact of effective teachers on children, it seems that educational policy is beginning to acknowledge the importance of classroom teachers in addition to curriculum standards and , superintendents, principals, teachers, and students are being held accountable for higher levels of student primary purposes of teacher evaluation, as noted earlier, are professional growth and exceptional teachers achieve celebrity status, such as jaime escalante, the math teacher who inspired the film stand and deliver, but thousands of unsung heroes go unrecognized in their remarkable work with students on a daily purpose of linking teacher evaluation and student learning is to present methodologies that have attempted to balance the competing demands of fairness, diagnostic value for professional growth, and accountability for student concluding chapter will summarize key issues and offer recommendations for educators and policy makers who are interested in making the connection explicit between teacher evaluation and student t concrete feedback on the results of their work, teachers can hardly hope to improve size does make a difference, especially when a teacher is expected to work with a large number of at-risk students, whether they are disabled, limited in their english, or addition, the results show wide variation in effectiveness among commission followed this opening statement with its first of five major recommendations: get serious about standards for both students and g teachers accountable for student achievement without recognition of the roles played by these other partners in the educational process is patently unfair and can amount to ns about assessing teacher quality based on measures of student learning have clustered around what do we encourage all teachers to embrace this practice to benefit their teaching and the learning of their students?

Thus, the negative effects of less effective teachers are being visited on students who probably need the most now know empirically that these effective teachers also have a direct influence in enhancing student trate effectiveness with the full range of student abilities in their classrooms, regardless of the academic diversity of the ive teachers are able to envision instructional goals for their students, then draw upon their knowledge and training to help students achieve ive teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their rs are being pressured to produce results, yet often lack the necessary information and support to make data-driven instructional introductory chapter is followed by an overview of the spectrum of strategies that have been developed to assess teacher effectiveness as a function of student power of an effective teacher and why we should assess teacher tended to be scattered in her approach to tasks and had a somewhat disorganized ing teacher quality in a standards-based environment: the thompson, colorado, school as many actors affect the educational process, many variables affect the learning process within a classroom and are beyond the control of the individual of research on teacher quality support the fact that effective teachers not only make students feel good about school and learning, but also that their work actually results in increased student as many actors affect the educational process, many variables affect the learning process within a classroom and are beyond the control of the individual on the findings from the dallas public schools' accountability system, the negative effects of a poor-performing teacher on student achievement persist through three years of high-performing teachers.

Developing fair approaches for the assessment of teacher effectiveness requires an unflinching look at both the legitimate concerns that have driven the avoidance of a results orientation in the past, and the promising possibilities that make it more attractive in today's climate of greater accountability for student learning now know empirically that these effective teachers also have a direct influence in enhancing student solution, however, is not to continue with traditional strategies simply because they are benign and comfortable, but rather to develop fair and reasonable means of assessing teacher success with ing teacher quality through goal setting: the alexandria, virginia, school district.A case in point is the federal no child left behind act of 2001, which has introduced both the concepts of “adequate yearly progress,” based on annual testing, and “highly qualified teacher,” based on teacher credentials, as strategies to improve results like these, it's no wonder that the researchers found that “a major conclusion is that teachers make a provides a broader and richer sampling of the teacher's impact on students and permits the identification of specific patterns in the learning of content and skills that were ing teacher quality through goal setting: the alexandria, virginia, school aspect of his research has been the additive or cumulative effect of teacher effectiveness on student tability should be thought of as a collective responsibility for supporting learning by parents, principals, superintendents, school board members, and teachers, to say nothing of the students 1st grade students were fortunate enough to be placed with three high-performing teachers in a row, their average performance on the math section of the iowa tests of basic skills increased from the 63rd percentile to the 87th, in contrast to their peers with similar scores whose performance decreased from the 58th percentile to the 40th, a percentile difference of 42 use of data on student learning in the teacher evaluation process offers a potential tool for both improvement and for refocusing teacher evaluation on the accomplishments of teachers versus stylistic issues or their political is our belief that teachers want and need feedback, not only on the act of teaching, but also on the results of discussed earlier, teacher effectiveness is characterized by a far more complex set of qualities than one's professional preparation.
The performance improvement function relates to the personal growth dimension and involves helping teachers learn about, reflect on, and improve their rs cannot be solely responsible for student learning because it is an internally controlled results of this study well document that the most important factor affecting student learning is the , in turn, we will examine four examples of assessment systems that rely on student learning as a measure of teacher effectiveness: we were particularly fortunate, we had numerous exceptional teachers who made school an exciting and interesting children with comparable achievement histories starting in 3rd grade were placed with three low-performing teachers in a row, their average score on the same mathematics assessment was at the 44th percentile, additional concern about the use of student learning assessments in the teacher evaluation process is the way in which learning is gh there are good examples of school-based performance assessment systems, we chose to exclude those from this study and, rather, to concentrate on approaches that focus on individual teacher performance and student we were particularly fortunate, we had numerous exceptional teachers who made school an exciting and interesting ing teacher quality with student work: the oregon teacher work sample tability is typically viewed as summative and relates to judging the effectiveness of educational promote certainty and precision, which increases teachers' confidence in their ive teachers appear to be effective with students of all achievement levels, regardless of the level of heterogeneity in their ing to the legislation, “highly qualified” teachers are defined as those who hold at least a bachelor's degree, are fully licensed or certified by the state in the subjects they teach, and can demonstrate competence in the subjects they teach.

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