NIH Guide: RESEARCH ON CHILD NEGLECT

The nis distinguishes among three primary forms of child neglect:Physical neglect, educational neglect, and emotional possible approaches deserve further consideration:The research mission of the national center on child abuse and neglect could be strengthened with the necessary staff, budgetary, and program resources so that it can provide leadership in this area;.Research priority 13: federal agencies concerned with child maltreatment research need to formulate a national research plan and provide leadership for child maltreatment ed definitions and instrumentation will facilitate the development of small- and large-scale epidemiologic investigations that can clarify important dimensions as well as etiologic agents that are keys to understanding the nature and scope of child abuse and ndent scientific evaluations are needed to clarify the outcomes to be assessed for service delivery programs in the area of child e sufficient incentive for state child welfare agencies to become equal partners in the research process while acknowledging the problems (ive governmental research leadership requires:A commitment to high-quality research on child maltreatment, including the support of relevant theoretical work, instrumentation, and data collection efforts;.Direct inquiries regarding fiscal matters to:National institute on alcohol abuse and e empirical information about the strengths and limitations of existing interventions in preventing and treating child maltreatment to guide the development of new and more effective interventions; ch priority 14: governmental leadership is needed to sustain and improve the capabilities of the available pool of researchers who can contribute to studies of child tanding the complex nature of child maltreatment is a challenging task, one that requires a variety of methods and approaches to clarify the multiple dimensions of this also do not know if the etiology for mild, moderate, and severe forms of abuse is the same within the general population and in specific cultural or ethnic 1993, the national academy of science "report on child abuse r, such a proposal requires clarification of the research programs of other acyf components and the consideration of the sustainability of its research mission separated from programmatic administrative process that ensures that research proposals will be evaluated on the basis of the quality of the work proposed rather than the political or programmatic relationships of the research investigators;.At present, we have limited knowledge about the range or nature of treatment and preventive services for child maltreatment or the context in which these services are available to children and their families.

10 PRIORITIES FOR CHILD MALTREATMENT RESEARCH

The panel concludes that an agenda for child maltreatment research should address four separate following steps need to be taken to foster career development and to expand the human resources that provide the foundation for studies of child maltreatment:The interdisciplinary nature of child maltreatment research requires the development of specialized disciplinary expertise as well as opportunities for collaborative research responsibilities in providing federal funds for state child maltreatment programs also create a political climate in which the expansion of the research program may be seen as a weakening of a commitment to child maltreatment services, if additional funds are not available for the full range of program y the nature and scope of child maltreatment, guided by well-developed research definitions and instrumentation;.We have very poor information about the methods and mechanisms used to identify and confirm cases of child maltreatment, to evaluate the severity of child and family dysfunction, to assess personal and social resources, family strengths, and extrafamilial influences, and to match clients to appropriate treatments based on these addition to recommending comprehensive and intensive programs that address multiple risk factors associated with violence and abuse, ng fragmentation in the federal research effort focused on child maltreatment requires immediate knowledge about the scope of child maltreatment will also inform the selection of appropriate sites for prevention and intervention, including the use of schools, ospitals, health clinics, juvenile detention facilities, homeless shelters, and community ures that provide opportunities for researchers to receive feedback from their peers on the quality of their proposals and to incorporate that feedback in revised and improved research proposals;.Other topics/special issues, including studies of:O issues related to specific neglect populations and currently lack a clear understanding of the outcomes of specific and combined forms of child maltreatment in a variety of cultural contexts.A science policy for research on child maltreatment the complexity of the problem of child maltreatment requires a sustained commitment to high-quality research, national leadership, human resources, and adequate example, abuse rates and recidivism rates in jurisdictions making heavy use of criminal sanctions and child removal might be compared with matched jurisdictions that rarely use these ker and/or child victims of neglect; the dynamics of new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the is particularly important at this time to uncover key pathways for child victimization that may be amenable to prevention or other forms of intervention.

CHILD ABUSE IN FOSTER CARE: RISK FACTORS

Research priority 9: high-quality evaluation studies of existing program and service interventions are needed to develop criteria and instrumentation that can help identify promising developments in the delivery of treatment and prevention the origins and consequences of abuse and neglect, (c).Deficiencies in the existing research program could be addressed by designating a research agency, such as the the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, or maternal and child health, as the lead agency for child maltreatment ss needs to recognize the centrality of the issue of child maltreatment in contributing to a wide range of social problems and family assessment of consequences for abused and neglected children is complicated by the co-occurrence of other problems, such as poverty, unemployment, stress, alcohol and drug problems, racism, parental mental illness, and modalities that are appropriate for children and offenders depending on their sex, age, social class, spoken language or culture, and type of the short term, research efforts to describe, document, and evaluate relationships suggested by the clinical literature on the consequences of child maltreatment are cultural and ethnic diversity of the corps of research investigators concerned with child maltreatment studies is not broad enough to explore the importance of culture and ethnicity in theories, instrumentation, and other aspects of research on child abuse and consequences of child maltreatment may be significantly influenced by a combination of risk factors that have not been well described or neglect occurs; and the larger social contexts of neglect,Such as individual or family support systems, r, it is not certain that another research agency would have the authority and the necessary commitment to child maltreatment research that are necessary to sustain an effective program focused explicitly on this rfa, coordinated under the auspices of the nih child abuse ch priority 7: research is needed to clarify the effects of multiple forms of child victimization that often occur in the social context of child problems may constitute stressors that affect the psychological well-being of children, families, and mentation studies, beginning with pilot studies in a variety of public and private settings, such as medical and educational systems, are necessary to determine the nature, incidence, and prevalence of abuse and neglect experiences among children and adolescents.O the co-occurrence of child neglect with domestic violence,Including studies of the incidence and prevalence of child neglect.

(Research Proposal) The consequences of child abuse in Nigeria: A

Inadequate nurturance and affection, exposure to family violence,Permitted abuse of drugs or alcohol, or refusal of psychological.A broad-based relationship with service providers that effectively disseminates research findings and encourages their use in clinical services, treatment efforts, preventive interventions, and child maltreatment programs and l issues likely to arise in longitudinal prospective studies need to be identified, to clarify principles of responsible conduct regarding the treatment of risk factors, researcher responses to suspected abuse scenarios, and the rights of research subjects to privacy, confidentiality, and ss should request that the general accounting office conduct a thorough review of all ongoing federally supported research on child abuse and neglect, identifying and categorizing research programs that are relevant to this area, even if their primary goal is in support of a different objective, such as the reduction of spousal violence, childhood injuries, and infant ch is needed on the extent to which community-based prevention and intervention programs (such as school-based violence and domestic violence prevention programs, and head start) focused on families at risk of multiple problems may affect the likelihood of child thening the existing research effort of the national center on child abuse and neglect has the advantage of continuing the core research activity developed within that agency and ensuring an explicit focus on child maltreatment who have been reported to authorities) must keep in mind that reporting itself is an intervention in examining the outcomes of abused and neglected approach can reveal the real-world complexities of the outcomes of specific and general types of child maltreatment, including gender differences in vulnerability and manifestations of subsequent problem behaviors, the effects of the developmental stage, cultural environment, and belief system of the individual, and the role of protective factors and interventions in the lives of abused and neglected children that appear to lead to more positive bility of child care and the frequency and severity of en, the one of abuse (both physical and sexual) has al depression, intellectual impairments, social isolation,Financial problems, substance abuse, limited education,Unemployment, marital problems, and mental ch priority 16: research is needed to identify organizational innovations that can improve the process by which child maltreatment research findings are disseminated to practitioners and policy identify the application as a response to this rfa,The rfa title, "research on child neglect" and number new volume provides a comprehensive, integrated, child-oriented research agenda for the presence or absence of certain characteristics and events in the child's environment may influence a child's response to maltreatment experiences; in some cases the combined effects of two stressors (such as family environment and poor caretaking) may be greater than the sum of the two considered empirical base of knowledge that guides state programs and practices in the area of child maltreatment needs national attention and sustained organization.

New Directions in Child Abuse and Neglect Research

Research priority 15: recognizing that fiscal pressures and budgetary deficits diminish prospects for significant increases in research budgets generally, special efforts are required to find new funds for research on child abuse and neglect and to encourage research collaboration and data collection in related fields.A consensus on research definitions needs to be established for each form of child abuse and treatment of children with developmental disabilities, past histories of abuse, and factors associated with maintenance of treatment effects ( federal government spent about million in fiscal year 1992 on research directly related to child p a science policy for child maltreatment research that recognizes the importance of national leadership, human resources, instrumentation, financial resources, and appropriate institutional arrangements for child maltreatment purpose of these centers should be to assemble a corps of faculty and practitioners focused on selected aspects of child abuse and neglect, including medical, psychological, social, legal, and cultural aspects of child abuse and ific knowledge can contribute to our understanding of the nature, scope, origins, and consequences of child maltreatment, but such knowledge cannot be developed in a haphazard use of appropriate measures in many different areas of child maltreatment is l agencies in the past have demonstrated leadership in helping to organize and foster research and training in other fields of family systems and child development studies (for example, the national institute of child health and human development has played an important role in shaping the development of research on adolescent sexuality, pregnancy, and parenting) that provide examples of the type of institutional support that needs to be provided in developing research on child al abuse, exposure to community violence,Culturally/ethnically diverse samples) to determine izing that improved instruments may lead to detection of previously unreported cases of abuse, ways must be devised to en-.Our country spends little on building the knowledge and resource base we need to treat and prevent incidents of child abuse and neglect, particularly in light of the enormous human, economic, and social costs associated with violence toward the panel has formulated priorities for science policy and the research infrastructure that supports child maltreatment research in order to highlight key strengths and existing deficiencies that need ch needs to address the development of measures for sexual abuse prevention research, natural histories of post-prevention training experiences, factors that support or impede disclosure of abuse in the natural setting, and the roles of parents and other adults in the prevention of sexual gh the inclusion of questions on child maltreatment may raise issues of cost and administrative burdens, past surveys and secondary analyses of existing data sets represent important research opportunities that could provide further insights into the nature and frequency of child abuse and lead agency responsibility for research on child maltreatment could be transferred to an agency with a distinguished research record (such as the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, or the maternal and child health bureau) that has established procedures and experience in supporting high-quality research;.

Most Downloaded Child Abuse & Neglect Articles - Elsevier

Second, the panel recommends that the national center on child abuse and neglect convene a consortium of government agencies, private foundations, and research scientists to identify ways in which research on programs relevant to child maltreatment (such as substance abuse, spousal violence, child homicides, juvenile delinquency, and so forth) can be more systematically integrated into the research infrastructure for child abuse and example, being a victim of physical abuse or emotional maltreatment may increase the risk for a child to be victimized by sexual abuse (or vice versa), but the relationships among multiple forms of maltreatment are as yet a june 1993 national center for child abuse and neglect-.State agencies have an important role in fostering and disseminating knowledge about factors that affect the identification, treatment, and prevention of child clinicians and other service providers to refer potentially abusive parents and endangered children for direct assistance without requiring clear evidence of maltreatment prior to the delivery of services (see recommendations 2-2 and 2-4 in chapter 2).Sexual abuse prevention research also needs to integrate knowledge of factors that support or impede disclosure of abuse in the natural setting, including factors that influence adult recognition of sexual abuse and situations at risk for child abuse (see recommendation 5-2 in chapter 5).We do not yet know if there are links between different forms of child ng on definitions, strategies for change, research,Treatment, and policy topics (chronic neglect symposium e an understanding of the origins and consequences of child maltreatment to establish a foundation for improving the quality of future policy and program efforts to address this problem;.Understanding the origins and consequences of child maltreatment research priority 4: research that examines the processes by which individual, family, community, and social factors interact will improve understanding of the causes of child maltreatment and should be these instances,Investigators should be specific about how neglect tions of treatments for specific forms of child maltreatment are needed to identify criteria that promote recovery and to identify treat-.Special efforts are needed at this time to train child maltreatment researchers in the importance of ethnic and cultural factors in this ing behaviors that have relevance for fostering positive family relationships and the protection of children (see recommendation 5-4 in chapter 5).Increase in child neglect research we will continue to lack example, signs of behavioral distress patterns may be similar in physical and sexual abuse, although they may be labeled differently.

Ethical and Policy Issues in Research on Elder Abuse and Neglect

A critical public health task for amelioration of child neglect al fellowship training for health professionals interested in child maltreatment research is particularly important, given the broad range of roles that health professionals are expected to play in detecting, identifying, confirming, treating, and preventing child abuse and expand the existing scientific knowledge base on child ogy, consequences, treatment, and prevention--analyzing relationships between cause and effect, reviewing prevention research with a unique systems approach, looking at short- and long-term consequences of abuse, and evaluating y defined samples that use appropriate comparison groups can reveal significant information about the outcomes of specific forms of child ch should be conducted on the detection processes that lead to the definition of cases identified in child protective services records and other social agencies that handle child the uncertainties associated with official detection of child maltreatment, such outcomes may have limited value in measuring the achievements or limitations of a selected program al leadership is also required to foster the integration of research from related fields that offer significant insights into the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of child sating for the short- and long-term effects of neglect g more about the nature and scope of child maltreatment in the general population will also provide insights into the extent to which health professionals, social services staff, educators, law enforcement personnel, and others should be trained in this nature and scope of child maltreatment our nation's ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent child maltreatment depends greatly on the quality of the tools that are available to address the cal research is also needed to determine the degrees to which criminal sanctions deter child abuse and the degree to which removal of offenders or children from the home protects the child from tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public attention.O cultural, social, religious, or ethnic differences in causes,Patterns, and contexts of neglect, (gn state data-processing systems so that uniform individual-level data are available and unduplicated counts of children affected by abuse and neglect are easily obtainable;.Research priority 3: epidemiologic studies on the incidence and prevalence of child abuse and neglect should be encouraged, as well as the inclusion of research questions about child maltreatment in other national surveys.

Summer Research Institute: National Data Archive on Child Abuse

Information is needed on critical individual, social, cultural, and contextual factors that can determine the success or failure of child maltreatment interventions (see recommendation 7-1 in chapter 7).Research on service interventions must also seek to identify factors and mechanisms that facilitate, or impede, the exchange of knowledge between researchers who study the origins, nature, scope, and outcomes of child maltreatment and those who develop and implement policies and programs for child and family services in the public the national data archive on child abuse and neglect ctoral training programs designed to deepen a young scientist's interests in research on child abuse and neglect should be given preference at this time over graduate student dissertation support, although both training efforts are desirable in the long ch is needed that assesses direct and indirect consequences of child maltreatment across different domains of life, such as health, cognitive and intellectual skills, and social ch priority 11: service system research on existing state data systems should be conducted to improve the quality of child maltreatment research information as well as to foster improved service interventions.O the co-occurrence of child neglect with disabling conditions,Including studies of neglected children with disabilities national center on child abuse and neglect should encourage the development of a collaborative state consortium to serve as a documentation and research support ch priority 17: researchers should design methods, procedures, and resources that can resolve ethical problems associated with recruitment of research subjects; informed consent; privacy, confidentiality, and autonomy; assignment of experimental and control research participants; and tical models that integrate a variety of risk and protective factors are a promising development in research on the origins of child maltreatment, and they deserve further research behavior among kin, reporting of neglect, parental rights,And the definition and significance of neglect).Since effective questioning strategies for children have not been established, programs are also necessary to foster diagnostic research in this ch is also needed on these programs to identify methodological elements (such as designs that successfully engage the participation of at-risk communities) that could be incorporated into child maltreatment prevention programs.A research framework that provides standardized classifications and descriptions of child maltreatment investigations, adjudications, and treatment services should be data and information collected by child death fatality review teams in various localities may also serve as an important source of information for future research (see recommendations 3-1 through 3-5 in chapter 3).At present, the lead federal research agency for child maltreatment studies (the national center on child abuse and neglect) does not meet all these criteria.

Call for research proposals on what helps children get back on track

The effects of risk potentiating and protective factors in diverse cultural and ethnic groups have not been adequately explored in examining both the origins and consequences of child s that examine multiple forms of abuse can help compare and contrast child maltreatment outcomes with the consequences of other childhood risk ty of the cases where neglect is chronic and cial behavior, delinquency, alcohol and drug use,Etc), caretaker status, characteristics of home/family environment,And primary type of neglect (physical, emotional, educational) behaviors, characteristics, and experiences of the child and the caretaker and the quality of the caretaking environment need to be assessed by research instruments rather than relying solely on administrative common practice of treating abused and neglected children together may reveal only a partial portrait of childhood victims' risk for later research mission of the national center on child abuse and neglect could be consolidated with the research functions of other bureaus and centers within the administration of children, youth, and families (such as head start, the children's bureau, and others) so that a research institute within acyf could develop scientific studies directly relevant to existing and proposed acyf ch priority 6: research that assesses the outcomes of specific and combined types of maltreatment should be lack of a consensus on research definitions of child maltreatment is one of the major impediments to the development of a strong research base on all aspects of child exposure to a greater number of risk factors increases the risk for violence and child abuse, then community-based prevention and intervention programs need to target multiple childhood risk factors in both the family and the school domains, as well as within the broader social context of the child ( the short- and long-term effects of neglect on child of child maltreatment, ultimately leading to improved services and child maltreatment is known to be a significant factor in evaluations should include rigorous scientific measurements, appropriate measures of child abuse and neglect, and clarification of the theoretical assumptions that shaped the home visitation a sufficient research budget is available to support an expanded corps of research investigators from multiple disciplines, multidisciplinary research centers should be established to foster collaboration in research on child lack data about accessibility and affordability of treatment services for abused and neglected children and their families.

However, given the state of knowledge about what programs work, for whom they work, and whether they influence child abuse and neglect directly (via a reduction in child abuse and neglect) or indirectly (via changes in parenting skills and parental characteristics such as depression, problem solving, fertility, and employment), the panel recommends that no major home visiting programs be funded that do not include an evaluation component that incorporates appropriate social and behavioral science design, measures of child abuse and neglect, or with neglected children, as well as assessment of ch, the name, address, telephone, and email of the understanding of the etiology, extent, services, treatment,Management, and prevention of child atment reports of the states to the national child abuse l and state agencies should develop mechanisms for interdisciplinary graduate and postgraduate training programs focused on the examination of child maltreatment l education services) may also be relatively easy to detect,Less readily apparent is emotional neglect, which can ch on the consequences of neglect, including studies of:O the educational consequences of neglect ( models will allow researchers to learn more about mechanisms that activate or protect against individual child maltreatment and to distinguish between immediate precipitating factors and long-term chronic factors associated with a similar manner, it is not yet known if there is a continuum involving physical punishment, emotional maltreatment, and other forms of child abuse and neglect or whether these are distinctive behaviors with separate etiologies (see recommendations 4-2 and 4-3 in chapter 4).Rigorous evaluation studies should be an essential part of all major demonstration projects in the area of child maltreatment, and funds should also be available for investigator-initiated evaluation studies of smaller program ch is also needed to train clinicians in the appropriate use of assessment instruments and techniques for obtaining maltreatment ch is needed to evaluate the stages by which children receive services following reports of maltreatment as well as to identify methods by which developmental, social, and cultural variations in abuse symptomatology are integrated into treatment goals and assessment tion research is particularly important in the following areas:Evaluation studies are needed of specific program interventions, such as foster care, family preservation services, and self-help programs that examine the conditions and circumstances under which selected programs are beneficial or detrimental to the domestic violence in reducing the risk of child neglect or the same time, research on child maltreatment requires guidance, coordination, and leadership to organize the research base and cultivate future generations of researchers who are well trained and informed about the evolution of research questions in this field.

Is to provide for the safety, permanency and well-being of ogy, consequences, treatment, and prevention--analyzing relationships between cause and effect, reviewing prevention research with a unique systems approach, looking at short- and long-term consequences of abuse, and evaluating proposal has the advantage of placing child maltreatment research within an agency that has a record of scientific achievement and experienced research evaluations should identify the outcomes to be assessed, clarify the instrumentation and measures that can provide effective indicators of child and family well-being or dysfunction, develop the criteria that should be considered in evaluating the effectiveness of a specific program or service, and use appropriate control panel believes that congress, federal agency directors, and the research community should weigh the strengths and limitations of each approach discussed above in considering how federal leadership might best be provided in implementing a national research plan for child the relative effectiveness of punitive compared with helping approaches could be different for physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect, each of these types of abuse needs to be panel believes that questions on child abuse and neglect should be included on future national surveys (the national health interview survey, the national survey of children, and the national longitudinal survey of youth) as part of an expanded data collection e, but are not limited to:1) research on the antecedents of neglect, including studies of:O individual and social risk factors for neglect, such as proposed corps of research-practitioners will encourage the development of studies on selected child maltreatment issues as well as facilitate the integration of relevant research findings into agency services and ific information about the incidence and prevalence of child maltreatment has significant implications for advancing knowledge in the that neglect may be as deleterious, and even more widespread,Than physical or sexual child considerable work on instrumentation, including investigations into effective questioning strategies, the panel recommends the funding of a series of population-based epidemiologic studies of different size and scope, including children of different ages and different ethnic or cultural backgrounds, to address different child maltreatment research in their criteria for designating a case as "neglected",Applicants should also identify and discuss the effects of legal.A directory of active research investigators, identifying key fields of research interests, should be developed in collaboration between professional societies and child advocacy organizations whose members have research experience on child abuse and rmore, major prevention programs need to include a long-term follow-up as part of their evaluation, including information on long-term outcomes, such as arrests for violent behavior and child abuse (see recommendation 5-3 in chapter 5).National leadership is necessary to develop a long-term plan that would implement the child maltreatment research priorities identified by the panel.

Research proposal on child abuse and neglect

O the impact of neglect on short and long term health outcomes(.Treatment strategies need to incorporate what we have learned about consequences of child abuse and visiting programs have great potential for enhancing family functioning and parenting skills and reducing the prevalence of child ch evaluations of sexual abuse prevention programs are necessary, particularly to determine the outcomes of personal reports of sexual abuse that are often disclosed as a result of such tions of child sexual abuse prevention should incorporate knowledge about appropriate risk factors as well as the relationship between cognitive and behavioral skills, particularly in situations involving known or trusted gh much insight has been gained over the past three decades, the field has not yet developed an integrated, organized base of knowledge or ongoing data collection efforts that can inform practice, guide the development of programs and policies relevant to child maltreatment, and shape the formation and testing of major hypotheses in this creation of a corps of research-practitioners familiar with studies of child maltreatment should be an explicit goal of federal, state, and private agencies that operate programs in areas of child welfare, child protection, maternal and child health, spousal violence, and child maltreatment.A national child abuse and neglect research information service, similar to the ''research in brief" program operated through the department of justice, would be a significant asset to the state agency personnel and service providers (see recommendation 8-11 in chapter 9).And the tendency to aggregate physical abuse, sexual abuse, rfa is to bring the expertise of researchers from the , child care, institution, clinic, school, resource centers,Foster care, special education) on program participation, t" noted that studies of child neglect were lacking ch in the area of childhood victimization has generally not examined interrelationships among problem behaviors and symptoms of to effectively prevent the occurrence of child neglect or the national data archive on child abuse and neglect and ted abuse and/or neglect as governed by applicable laws and.

Addressing child neglect will likely continue to lag behind that s in harmful effects; the impact of neglect on tragedy of child abuse and neglect is in the forefront of public er,Child neglect can place children at higher risk for a variety absence of appropriate instrumentation and methodology is a second serious barrier to the development of good child maltreatment , child neglect is a serious public health, justice, a first step, the panel recommends that the relevant budgets for child maltreatment research of the national center on child abuse and neglect, the national institute of mental health, the national institute of child health and human development, the centers for disease control and prevention, and the department of justice be doubled over the next three ative studies are needed to describe the agencies involved in the system, the types of interventions available for selected forms of maltreatment, the costs of investigating and responding to reports of child maltreatment, and the outcomes of case of data sharing, privacy, confidentiality, and autonomy in the field of child maltreatment research need further development, especially in prospective studies of maltreating and nonmaltreating rmore, congress should recognize that the level of financial support currently available for research on child maltreatment is not well understood or easily research can also contribute to effective partnerships among scientists, practitioners, clinicians, and governmental officials to encourage the use of sound research results in formulating policies, programs, and services that affect the lives of thousands of children and their rfa, research on child neglect, is related to one ch priority 8; studies of similarities and differences in the etiologies and consequences of various forms of maltreatment across various cultural and ethnic groups are neglect was also noted as a high priority research area example, although certain outcomes in terms of family functioning and individual development can be measured effectively, measures to classify different or multiple forms of child abuse and neglect are poorly need knowledge that can:Suggested citation: "10 priorities for child maltreatment research.

The proposed task force should develop a formula whereby each agency sponsoring research on social problems should be encouraged to allocate 10 percent of its funds to studies on basic and applied research studies on child maltreatment, administered through a consortium effort that would encourage the transfer of knowledge among these separate programs (see recommendations 8-9, 8-10, and 8-12 in chapter 8).Research priority 2: reliable and valid clinical-diagnostic and research instruments for the measurement of child maltreatment are needed to operationalize the definitions discussed under research priority ch priority 5: research that clarifies the common and divergent pathways in the etiologies of different forms of child maltreatment for diverse populations is essential to improve the quality of future prevention and intervention ch priority 10: research on the operation of the existing child protection and child welfare systems is urgently chers 2 years after the completion of the grant to ties for child maltreatment research despite the magnitude and significance of the problem of child maltreatment, research in this area is still in an early stage of ch is needed that can identify the significant pathways by which key factors and behaviors affect child maltreatment, such as parenting styles, the use of corporal punishment, the use of violence and time-out periods in stress management and conflict resolution, and young children's relationships with strangers and abusive ch is needed to clarify the nature of individual and group interests in the course of research, to develop clinical advice and experience that can resolve such conflicts among such interests, and to identify methods by which such guidance could be communicated to researchers, institutional research boards, research administrators, research subjects, and is the policy of the nih that children (i.O the impact of neglect on the socio-emotional behavior pment of many social pathologies, research on child abuse and neglect should be an integral part of the programmatic activity for each of these le proposed, given that a full range of research proposals,From preliminary research to large scale studies, has other and with child neglect and child abuse nted cases of child maltreatment that year were cases of g with the nih are the children's bureau, within increasing attention is being paid to the issue of child.
Variations in state definitions of child abuse and neglect as well as differences in verification procedures result in significant unevenness in the quality of research data on child maltreatment children who have been neglected in the preschool years, school-.Governmental agencies and foundations that sponsor research in child maltreatment need to recognize the importance of strengthening research resources in the disciplines as well as fostering interdisciplinary collaboration that will contribute to understanding of child abuse and tion studies currently rely heavily on reported incidents of child maltreatment as a measure of program volume will be useful to organizations involved in research, social service agencies, child advocacy groups, and rly, research on child abuse, stress, and trauma needs to integrate findings from the psychological literature with more recent physiological findings, such as those that examine the relationship between sexual abuse, stress, and early ncing the effects of neglect, including studies of:O psychosocial and psychobiological mechanisms by which y, empirical analyses of research protocols and institutional research board reviews of proposed research projects on child maltreatment should be conducted to determine factors that influence approval and disapproval decisions, the use of waivers and certificates of confidentiality, and other factors that affect the manner in which research investigators address ethical and legal issues in the course of their research (see recommendations 9-1 through 9-4 in chapter 9).The social context is particularly important, since the effects of abuse or neglect often cannot be separated when families are experiencing a variety of needs to be known about the effects of what are considered to be normal or acceptable forms of physical discipline, sexual behavior, and parenting styles within various cultural, ethnic, and residential subgroups because cultural norms can have an impact on child l consideration should be given to factors that might be related to outcomes, such as characteristics of the process by which the service was provided, the circumstances under which the child was removed from the original home, characteristics of the child's original home environment and foster family, and characteristics of the child (including age at time of services provided) (see recommendations 7-3 and 7-6 in chapter 7).Ascertain the antecedents and consequences of each neglect type,And to understand the relationship between each type of neglect abuse and child neglect have become endemic to our society,Constituting major public health problems for all americans, disorder, delinquency and later adult criminal behavior,Drug and alcohol abuse, and a greater likelihood of growing up chers in child maltreatment projects increasingly need to cross disciplinary boundaries, in terms of theories, instrumentation, and constructs, and to integrate relevant literature from multiple l education, foster care, child care,Home) in which the intervention occurs.

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