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And china on friday announced significant steps in their efforts to combat climate change, including a pledge by china to launch a program by 2017 to cap some emissions and put a price on carbon and to contribute .

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It was the spring of 1954, and congress had voted, after some controversy, to insert the phrase into the pledge of allegiance, partly as a cold war rejoinder to "godless" communism.

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In 1942, the pledge's 50th anniversary, congress adopted it as part of a national flag code.

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And we can be sure that bellamy, if he was like most writers, would have balked at anyone tinkering with his prose.

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And China on Friday announced significant steps in their efforts to combat climate change, including a pledge by China to launch a program by 2017 to cap some emissions and put a price on carbon and to contribute .

U.S., China Announce Steps on Climate Change, .1 Billion

Bellamy, who went on to become an advertising executive, wrote extensively about the pledge in later years.

The Man Who Wrote the Pledge of Allegiance | History | Smithsonian

But no sooner had the pledge taken root in schools than the fiddling with it began.

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Appeals court ruling in june 2002 that "under god" turns the pledge into an unconstitutional government endorsement of religion when recited in public schools.

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In bellamy's later accounts of the sultry august evening he composed the pledge, he said that he believed all along it should invoke allegiance.

In 1943, the supreme court ruled in the witnesses' favor, undergirding the free-speech principle that no schoolchild should be compelled to recite the pledge.

Bellamy said he heard the pledge for the first time that day, october 21, when "4,000 high school boys in boston roared it out together.

Stepts to write a pledge

The case originated when michael newdow, an atheist, claimed that his daughter (a minor whose name has not been released) was harmed by reciting the pledge at her public school in elk grove, california.

And china on friday announced significant steps in their efforts to combat climate change, including a pledge by china to launch a program by 2017 to cap some emissions and put a price on carbon and to contribute .

Notably, jehovah's witnesses maintained that reciting the pledge violated their prohibition against venerating a graven image.
Lawmakers of both parties recited the pledge on the capitol steps.

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